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Cutting Speed as well as Feed – Its significance in Precision Machining of the metal components
The term ” cutting speed, ” as applied to machine tools, means the cutting performed by tool edge, in a given time. Or the material cut by the tool within a given time, would measure if extended in a straight line. The term ” feed, ” as applied to a machine tool, means the thickness of the cut or shaving taken by the tool.
Planing machines being constructed so that their tables run at a given and unchangeable speed, their cutting speed is fixed. The operator has only, therefore , to consider the question of the amount of feed to be given to the tool at a cut. It may be placed at a maximum by keeping the tool as stout as possible in proportion to its work. This makes it as hard as its strength will allow, as well as fastening it. So that its cutting edge is going to be as close to the tool post as circumstances will certainly permit.
It is only when we treat of lathe work that the questions of feed as well as speed assume their real importance. Because there is no part of the turner’s art by which so great a variation of practice exists or is possible. No part of his art so intricate and deceptive, as well as none requiring so much judgment, perception, as well as watchfulness. One reason being the nature of the work to be performed may render peculiar conditions of speed and feed necessary. Also a tool may appear to the unpracticed or experienced eye, to be doing excellent duty. But it is really falling far short of the duty it is capable of performing.
For all work which is so slight as to be very liable to spring from the force of the cut, for work to perform which a tool slight in body must be used, and in cases where the tool has to take out a sweep or round a corner which has a break in it, a light or fine feed must be employed. And it is therefore advisable to let the cutting speed be as fast as the tool will stand. But under all ordinary circumstances, a maximum of tool feed rather than of lathe speed will perform the greatest quantity of work in a provided time.
A keen tool, used with a quick speed and fine feed, will cut off thin shaving with a rapidity very pleasing to the eye. But it is deceptive to the judgment. For under such a high rate of cutting speed, the tool will not stand either a deep cut or a coarse feed. And the increase in the depth of cut and in the feed of the tool, obtainable by the employment of a slower lathe speed more than compensates for the reduction of lathe speed necessary to their attainment.
At Keio University, the Ryogo Kubo Laboratory, in the Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering (Faculty of Science and Technology), aims to help achieve a society that’s friendly to people and the environment from the viewpoint of infrastructure services. The Laboratory does research in the fields of control engineering, to enable systems to be operated freely, and information and communications engineering, to connect multiple systems through networks.
Q “As the performance of systems increases, it becomes possible to implement services that couldn’t be achieved before, such as electric power management and data communication services, to provide more options in daily life. And because it’s essential to make society sustainable, rather than just improving convenience, we’d like to help achieve a variety of services that also reduce energy consumption.”
The networked society of the future will emerge through research in many different disciplines.
By combining control engineering with information and communications engineering, the Ryogo Kubo Lab is doing R&D on two new technologies.
Q “One of our research projects involves controlling motors and other actuator equipment via networks. To achieve that, firstly, in terms of information and communications, on the network side, we need to achieve low delay or low packet loss. In terms of control, we need to achieve high-precision, stable control, even if there’s delay on the control side.”
Q “Another thing we do is research on energy-saving in networks. One specific example is technology for saving energy by using sleep mode; the idea is to put network equipment into sleep mode when there’s no traffic. But traffic flows continuously, so using sleep mode has to be scheduled effectively. We’re considering what methods are needed to do that, primarily from the viewpoint of control engineering.”
Q “In our lab, we combine those fields to take a two-sided approach: The idea is to minimize delay and packet loss on the network side, and compensate for unavoidable delay or loss on the control side.”
The world of networks evolves from day to day.
Controlling networks efficiently makes it possible to suggest a variety of services, and to reduce energy consumption, helping to make society both sustainable and full of benefits.
By researching two technologies — control engineering and information and communications engineering — the Kubo Laboratory is contributing to the world, in partnership with various institutions and academic societies.
“We do a lot of systems research, especially. In systems research, it’s important for us to work hard, doing research and study day and night, but that’s not all: I think we need to bear in mind that systems are used in society, and someone will benefit from the related services, so we have to be aware of how systems are used. Accordingly, in our research, we need to consider how the systems we construct are useful to society, what features are necessary right now, and how they might be necessary in the future.”